User documentation

About NEAT

09/13/2017 07:32 PM

The NEAT (Network Engineering Apprenticeship Training) program is designed to introduce the fundamentals of network engineering, routing and switching, virtualization and storage to high school and college students. Students will gain considerable exposure to the Linux operating system, KVM hypervisor, essentials of IPv4 networking and basic Cisco routing and switching.

Teacher Lab Process to connect the server to the internet run OS and NEAT updates

12/19/2017 04:32 PM

This process is used to connect a neat rack server to the internet to download updates, or download a new VM guest image. You can also download a VM image to a laptop or thumb drive and copy an image down that way. But to update the host software you will need to connect it to the internet.

Student Lab Setup

09/13/2017 07:34 PM

The goal of this exercise is to set up the server for usage in the followig semester and labs. You will be accessing the switch through an SSH client.

Note: This setup should only be done on ONE machine - the cisco switch. It will involve consoling into the Cisco switch and the servers. The secondary switch will be connected to a single vlan on the Cisco switch.

Intro to Linux

09/13/2017 07:35 PM

The Linux Terminal

The Linux terminal (bash by default) is a command line-based tool used to control a Linux system. This is the most basic way of interacting with a Linux system. The terminal is command-based. Different commands perform different functions in the terminal. For instance, ls lists all the items in a directory, while cd changes the current working directory.

IP Addressing

09/13/2017 07:36 PM

IP Addresses

An IP Address is similar to what it sounds like: an address. It gives a location for your computer to be accessed at and is what other computers use to locate where your system is. You use your address whenever you request data from somewhere as a place to send that data. You also get that data from a server that has an ip address. Everything that has internet access has an ip address, making them crucial to the Internet's success.


09/13/2017 07:39 PM

Background Info:

Key Benefits of virtualization:

Virtualization is used for a variety of reasons.

1. Most physical servers are underutilized; virtualization allows physical servers to be stacked full of applications to make better use of available RAM and CPU. A single 24 core server can run 30 or more vms (virtual machines) for example.

Cisco Lab

09/13/2017 07:40 PM

Cisco Lab

In this lab, you will learn the basics of Cisco routing. The techniques you learn in this lab help show how a single inbound connection can be spread all across a myriad of systems efficiently. The only problem is that the UI for these switches a command line. We will outline all the basic commands and what they do. Some of this will be familiar from when you set up the server earlier.

Intro to Routing

09/13/2017 07:43 PM

Basic Concepts

At an abstract level, routing is building maps and giving directions to incoming packets. We do this by directing different packets to different locations based on 2 criteria: destination and netmask. These packets are then forwarded on to a "next hop" location. This is called classic or destination based forwarding and is supported by all routers and most hosts.

Static Routing Lab

09/13/2017 07:51 PM

Static Routing Lab

Now that you understand the basics of static routing, it's time for a real-world lab.

Note that this lab contains a lot more ambiguity and reliance on the student. Take your time and feel free to look up issues online as you find them. If you encounter an error you cannot get around, you may contact a NEAT Administrator.

Intro to Firewalling

09/13/2017 07:52 PM

As you may have noticed in the static routing lab, a true router will accept any and all packets and forward them wherever it sees fit. This creates security problems because it allows an intruder to point a static route to your hub and access your entire network. We use firewalls to fix this problem.

Firewall Lab

09/13/2017 07:53 PM

Firewall Lab

Now that you know the basic uses and function of firewalls in networking, it's time to apply your knowledge. In this lab you will create a firewall that separates the "internet" (which in this case will be a vm) and your internal network, including vlans 60, 70, and any others created from other labs.

Intro to VOIP

09/13/2017 07:54 PM


What is VoIP

Voice Over IP- VoIP for short- is a system of using phones to talk or communicate over the internet through ip addresses. VoIP is used by most businesses and call centers to have a myriad of phones easily managed by one system. You can also connect them all to one external number using extensions.


12/18/2017 02:41 PM

To learn about VoIP, we are going to create a real VoIP system using 3CX, an enterprise-grade PBX software. One new part of this lab is that you will be connecting your setup to the internet for the initial setup of 3CX.

IMPORTANT: Before connecting to the internet, ask a teacher/network administrator to get approval.

Quiz 1

09/13/2017 07:56 PM

Unit 1 Quiz

1. In Linux, "cd" stands for ?
  • class drivers
  • change directory*
  • change device
  • control device
2. Which of the following is an invalid PUBLIC ip address?

Quiz 2

09/13/2017 07:56 PM

Unit 2 Quiz

1. What is KVM and its use?
  • Kernel Virtual Manager allows you to control programs on your system
  • Kernel Virtual Machine controls the programs running on your system
  • Kernel Virtual Manager is a virtual machine host that you can run and manage vms on

Quiz 3

09/13/2017 07:57 PM

Unit 3 Quiz

1. Which of the following is NOT a private ip address?
2. What is routing?
  • Giving directions for packets to travel to their destination*
  • A program that gives driving directions

Quiz 4

09/13/2017 07:57 PM

Unit 4 Quiz

1. What is a firewall?
  • A device that hosts a website
  • A wall made of fire that splits China down the middle
  • A system that tests packets for parameters and blocks unwanted packets*
  • A client that routes voice over ip calls

2. Which of the following is not a possible function of a firewall?

Quiz 5

09/13/2017 07:57 PM

Unit 5 Quiz

1. What is NOT an advantage of VoIP over traditional telephone systems?
  • Phones are cheaper*
  • More flexible
  • Service is cheaper
  • More features
2. Which is not an example of a VoIP system?
  • 3cx
  • ISCSI*
  • FusionPBX
  • OpenPBX

KVM Lab Rubric

09/13/2017 07:58 PM

KVM Lab Rubric

50pts: Creates dhcp.img and dhcp.xml
30pts: Enters dhcp vm
5pts: Changed vm name to DHCP
5pts: Changed hostname to anything besides guest
10pts: /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf is correctly edited (use the lab notes)

Bonus: +5pts to best hostname

Cisco Lab Rubric

09/13/2017 07:58 PM

60pts: get into switch
70pts: ssh from other machine into switch w/out usb adapter
5pts: get into terminal mode (trainswitch(config)#)
5pts: have show run
5pts: created vlan 70
Example text:

Interface Vlan 70

2pts: Gave correct ip to Vlan 70

Static Routing Lab Rubric

09/13/2017 07:59 PM

Static Routing Lab Rubric

50pts: spoke1 is created with appropriate naming
5pts: spoke1 has access to correct vlans (751, 105)
5pts: spoke1 is configured correctly in the vm- can ping hub (
10pts: spoke2 is created with appropriate naming

Firewalling Lab Rubric

09/13/2017 07:59 PM

Firewall Lab Rubric
65pts: Inside pfsense web interface
5pts: Gets dhcp from the LAN
5pts: Gets dhcp from Opt1 Network
10pts: Can ping from firewall LAN to internet
5pts: Can ping from firewall LAN to extension for the internet
10pts: Have disabled firewall that, when enabled, blocks pings from reaching the internet vm

VOIP Lab Rubric

09/13/2017 07:59 PM

VoIP Lab Rubric
65pts. Can console into 3cx vm
10pts. Can access 3cx web interface
10pts. Provision a phone (either soft phone or hard phones)
10pts. Provision a second phone (either)
5pts. Call from one phone to another
+5pts. Bonus! Getting digital assistant to work on a phone

Using Minicom

09/13/2017 08:00 PM

The most common way to access a switch is through a serial port. This port, usually similar looking to a ethernet port, is (normally) located on the rear of the switch. Plug in a serial to usb adapter and connect that adapter to a machine.

If you are running Windows, use puTTY to serial console into the switch using the USB to serial cable. A guide to puTTY can be found here:

Backing Up Labs

09/13/2017 08:01 PM

Before and after each lab, you will have to back up the configuration of your VMs as well as your switch and router. Make sure to do this or else the next group might overwrite your changes!

Backing up and resetting switch and router

To backup the configuration, log into the switch or router and do a "show run" to see the current configuration. Press the spacebar to go through the whole thing. Copy down the entire configuration and paste it into a text file on your computer. Save that someplace you won't lose it.

Getting virtual machine images for each lab

11/30/2017 05:08 PM

Getting the proper virtual machine images for each lab

For each lab, you will need a set of images and files:
KVM Intro: guest.xml, guest.img
Static Routing: spoke1.img, spoke1.xml
Firewall: pfsense_guest.img, fios.img, fios.xml, google.img, google.xml

Proper Way to Shutdown a neat rack server

12/05/2017 04:01 PM

This cmd will shutdown a neat rack server safely:

/sbin/halt -p

You also may want to use virsh to shutdown each of your VMs first. The host system shutdown process should halt each guest first but sometimes its faster to shutdown each guest.

Using ethtool to troubleshoot your physical NIC/network connectivity issues

12/05/2017 05:03 PM

Use the ethtool command to check your physical connections. You may have plugged a cable into eth1 when intended to be in eth0 and vice versa.

ethtool eth0
ethtool eth1

If you are connected to a gigabit network you will see these relevant settings:

Using the SVN command to update the NEAT Repositories

12/05/2017 05:16 PM

Subversion (svn) is used to keep all of the extra programs supplied with NEAT updated.

In order to update your host server, you need to connect to a working internet connection and run these commands:

cd /opt/rwtrainer/; svn update; svn status

Using puTTY

12/18/2017 11:25 AM

Using puTTY

What is puTTY

puTTY is a tool used in Windows that gives users the ability to easily connect to other devices. While these connections can be done in the command line of Windows, puTTY gives a single location with a basic UI for users to follow. In our labs, you will use puTTY for SSH and Console connections. However, puTTY has abilities beyond this, including (but not limited to) telnet connections.

KVM Commands Reference

12/20/2017 09:32 AM

Creating VMs

To define VM from xml configuration:

root@labsrv1 16:20:46 
 > ~ # virsh define <path_to_xml_file>

To clone a virtual machine (provided that the virtual machine is shutdown):

root@labsrv1 22:24:20 

About Your NEAT Rack

01/01/2018 09:54 PM

Your NEAT Rack comes with three main components: the servers, the switches, and the routers.

Our Server Configuration

The Servers

Your NEAT Rack comes with two servers. These servers will either be SuperMicro custom servers, Dell 1950s, Dell 2950s, or IBM x3550s.

Our Server Configuration

01/01/2018 11:06 PM

The NEAT servers run on Debian Linux, but you may have noticed that they are slightly different from a basic Debian installation. This article will go over how our servers are different from a basic Debian installation.

Our Bash Settings

The first thing you'll notice is that our Bash prompt is different from a standard Debian prompt. Our prompt is structured in this form:

Help Understanding how to edit/create guest network interfaces

04/23/2018 02:40 PM

You can copy the xml template of one of the other vms.

If you look in the lab text it gives you an example:

<interface type='bridge'>
      <source bridge='vmbr80'/>
      <model type='virtio'/>

But this example is incomplete as its expected that you will look at a working example and infer what other options need to be added.